정부가 농식품 수출지원사업을 적극적으로 지원한 영향으로 2016년 농림수산식품 전체 수출액은 85.95억 달러로 2008년의 두 배 수준으로 성장하였다. 그럼에도 불구하고 수출증대에 몇 가지 한계점을 보이고 있는데, 그중 대표적인 것이 수출국가가 일본, 중국, 미국에 50% 정도 편중되어 있다는 점이다. 정부도 이런 문제를 개선하기 위해 시장다변화 사업을 추진하고 있지만 단기적으로 지원성과를 기대하기는 쉽지 않다. 따라서 비교적 짧은 기간에 수출을 효과적으로 증대시키기 위해서는 수출 최상위 국가들 바로 하위 단계인 차순위 국가들에 대해 수출을 증대시키는 전략이 필요하다.
한편, 지금까지 농식품 수출을 증대하기 위한 노력은 주로 국내 생산 및 유통 단계에서의 애로사항을 해결하는 데 집중된 반면, 수출시장의 바이어 및 소비자의 소비 특성을 감안한 수출증대 추진은 미약한 실정이었다. 따라서 수출시장의 소비 선호 정보를 적극적으로 파악하는 노력이 필요한데, 소비특성 분석을 통해 마케팅활동을 전략적으로 수행하고, 수출 대상 국가의 다양화·다변화를 통해서 수출 안정성을 높일 수 있기 때문이다.
본 연구는 베트남과 UAE 시장 중심으로 한국산 농식품에 대한 소비 특성 및 구입 영향요인을 분석하고 국내 단계에서의 공급 애로 및 개선사항과 연계시켜 수출 개선사항 및 증대 전략을 제시하였다.
While attempts to increase the exports of agro-foods have been focused on solving difficulties in domestic production and distribution stages, they have been weak in promoting the exports taking into consideration the characteristics of the buyers and consumers in the export destinations. In order to diversify export target countries and to strategically perform marketing activities, it is necessary to closely examine the export market and consumption characteristics. This study analyzed the consumption characteristics and the factors of purchase intention in the export market of Korean agro-foods and suggested the strategies for improving and increasing the exports coupled with the process of finding out supply difficulties at the domestic stages. A strategy for the export growth to the countries other than Japan, China, and the US is needed to enhance export support performance and reduce dependence on the export to the major export destinations. In the meantime, export companies had difficulties in the entry into the overseas market and activities there due to lack of information on the specific consumption characteristics of agro-food in the countries other than the major countries, such as Vietnam and the UAE. By analyzing consumption characteristics of the export market, we can achieve the export performance effectively by performing systematic and strategic marketing activities. Greater efforts are needed to identify consumption trends in the countries, increase the exports and look for new markets, and it is necessary to develop and supply agro-foods tailored to needs of consumption in the export market. In particular, as the domestic and overseas interest in food safety and health is increasing, it is necessary to examine the consumption characteristics in the export market and establish strategies for the market entry.
Method of Research
An analysis on the agro-food export market and its entry condition was performed through the review of previous researches and market survey reports, analysis of the major statistical data, an expert meeting for consultation, cooperation with overseas entry organizations such as Korean agencies having entered the export market and Korean local trading companies. This study performed a survey through a professional survey service provider to examine the conditions for entering the export market of Vietnam and the UAE, and find out the implications. The competitiveness of the export market was examined by TSI (Trade Specialization Index) and MCA (Market Comparative Advantage), and the competition structure. The consumer characteristics in the export market were analyzed by a survey through a questionnaire for consumers of each export destination, purchase frequency analysis, cross analysis, and ordered logit model analysis. A conference for expanding agro-food export was held to look for ways to enter the export market. A survey by a questionnaire and telephone calls with producer groups and exporters was conducted to find out difficulties and make an improvement in each stage of exporting agro-foods.
Results and Implications
It is shown that the main items exported to the Vietnamese market include agro-foods, for example, enoki mushrooms, king oyster mushrooms, pears, strawberries, instant noodle and drinks produced in Korea, competing against agro-foods produced in China, the US and Thailand. Although Korean agro-foods sold in the Vietnamese market are not cost-competitive, the analysis shows there is a high demand for Korean agro-foods in this market because Vietnamese consumers prefer Korean agro-foods and trust high quality relative to prices. The TSI for the Vietnamese market shows the most globally-competitive items are sweet persimmons and enoki mushrooms, showing that the TSIs of these items are calculated to be 1. Among processed products, the TSIs of instant noodles and processed red ginseng products were calculated to be 0.99 respectively, implying that they are very globally competitive. The survey shows a small amount of fresh agricultural products, mainly processed foods, are exported to the UAE market. The UAE imports the products from the US, Brazil, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The survey shows that exemplary Korean agro-foods exported to the UAE market include kimchi, sauces, instant noodles, processed red ginseng products, and drinks. The TSIs show that among the fresh agricultural products, the competitive export items in the UAE market are sweet persimmons (1.00), pears (0.99) and strawberries (0.30). All TSIs of kimchi, chicken, pork and beef were calculated to be negative, implying they are not competitive in the market. The TSIs of instant noodles and processed red ginseng products were 0.99, respectively, implying their high competitiveness. On the other hand, pears (-0.27) were not highly competitive.
When consuming agro-foods, Vietnamese consumers lay great emphasis on healthy diet and functionality and trust Korean agro-foods. The analysis shows that their motives to buy Korean agro-foods are based on the experience of watching Korean TV dramas, and Vietnamese consumers purchase them mainly from large-scale supermarkets. When purchasing Korean strawberries, Vietnamese consumers lay the most emphasis on freshness, and think strawberry flavor is more important than any other characteristics. The main factors affecting Vietnamese consumers’ intention to purchase Korean agro-foods turn out to be the experience watching Korean TV dramas, followed by Korea’s brand image and quality satisfaction relative to prices (cost-effectiveness). The UAE consumers are very interested in food safety and quality, and prefer imported foods and prefer Halal-certified foods due to the interest in safe foods rather than a religious reason. The UAE consumers prefer Korean mandarins, strawberries, and oriental pears, considering cost-effectiveness when purchasing Korean agro-foods. The main variables affecting the purchase of Korean agro-foods in the UAE market turn out to be the brand image of Korean agro-foods, interest in food safety, preference for Halal certified foods, and interest in functionality.
The expenditures on agro-foods in Vietnam and the income and population in the UAE are expected to increase, which will contribute to increasing the Korean exports. Therefore, it is necessary to make a positive effort for entering the two countries’ markets representing Southeast Asia and Middle East. To this end, this study presents the essential direction for expanding the export market as follows: 1) establishing entry strategies into overseas export markets, 2) establishing strategies for marketing/sales promotion coupled with characteristics of consumption, and 3) considering the expansion strategies in each stage of market entry. The entry strategies taking into consideration export market conditions are as follows: 1) selecting strategic export items considering local production and supply conditions, 2) establishing the plan for improving freshness and reducing expenses in consideration of conditions related to local weather and transportation/logistics distances, and 3) establishing strategies for expanding distribution channels in consideration of consumption characteristics in each export destination. For the marketing/sales promotion strategy in consideration of consumption characteristics in the export market, it is needed to establish an essential direction for agro-foods reflecting consumption trends and keywords in the export market. The entry strategies for the export market can improve the efficiency of market entry when considering short, mid and long term priorities. In the short term, efforts should be made to strengthen the basic conditions for market entry, such as increasing awareness of Korean agro-foods and collecting information on the export market. In the mid- and long term, it is necessary to build infrastructure and operating systems and export organizations that can increase the preference for Korean agro-foods in the export market and can continue to export.
Because the main keywords of agro-food consumption in the Vietnamese and UAE markets are ‘healthy living/safety/functionality’, management and promotion of safety and health functionalities of agro-foods are very important to increase consumer’s satisfaction. For example, the strategies to develop post-harvest management technology for the supply of fresher agricultural products and improve logistics systems as well as the strategies to supply agro-foods above a certain level of quality, even if the price is somewhat higher for the consumers who carefully check price-quality when purchasing agro-foods, will be effective. The roles of expanding the export markets in consideration of the consumption characteristics in the markets are divided into roles of producers, exporters, and the government responsible for exporting agro-foods. Producers should make an effort to build a production and management system for export-oriented and safe agro-food, a quality assurance system for enhancing consumer’s confidence in safety and functionalities, and implement efficient commercialization by the diversification of exported products, packaging and labels. Exporters need to examine preferences in each export market to identify items with growth potential and conduct pilot export projects, and carry out proactive marketing activities such as looking for large-scale buyers and distribution channels. It is necessary for the government to build a stable basis for supplying exported products, develop and apply post-harvest management technology, and support an export logistics basis and operating system. The top priority in the early stage of entering the export market is to find out main items in each export market, diversify exported products, improve commercialization, look for the buyers in the export market, and expand distribution channels.
In the early stage of the entry into the export market to mid and long term, we will continue to focus on the issues such as commercialization to enhance consumer confidence in the safety and the functionality, the export-oriented quality management system, quality certification support, and differentiation of marketing activities in the export market. It is necessary to organize export organizations for the systematic quality control of agro-foods, secure the export volumes, and actively carry out marketing activities in the export market. These export organizations should be fostered nationwide or regionally considering the characteristics of each item.
Researchers: Kim Kyungphil, Kim Sanghyun and Han Junghoon
Research period: 2017. 1. ~ 2017. 10.
E-mail address: email@example.com