디지털 기술의 발전에 따라 경제의 디지털화가 전 세계적으로 진행되고 있다. 또한 2019년 발생하여 전 세계적으로 영향을 미치고 있는 코로나19는 사람 간 비대면 거래를 확대시켜 디지털 기술 사용도를 높이고 디지털 전환을 가속화시키고 있다.
농업부문의 디지털화는 주요 선진국들을 중심으로 빠르게 진행되고 있고 우리나라도 농업의 디지털화를 통한 성장동력 확보를 목표로 스마트 농업(Smart Agriculture)을 적극적으로 추진하고 있다. 이러한 농업의 디지털화에 따라 농식품 수출에서도 디지털 기술 사용이 증가하고 디지털 무역이 확대될 것으로 전망된다. 따라서 디지털 무역 시대에 농식품 수출 확대를 위한 효과적인 대응방향 설정이 필요하다.
이 연구에서는 디지털 무역 시대에 농식품의 디지털 무역 관련 통상 규범 및 쟁점을 분석하고, 국내외 디지털 무역 현황과 전망을 제시한다. 또한 농식품 수출 관련 업체의 디지털 기술 활용 실태 및 애로 사항 등을 선제적으로 조사·분석하여 농식품 수출 활성화 방향을 제시하는 것을 목적으로 한다.
Background and Purpose
○ With the development of digital technology, the digitalization of the economy is progressing around the world. In addition, COVID-19, which occurred in 2019 and has been affecting the world, is expanding non-face-to-face transactions between people, increasing the use of digital technology and accelerating digital transformation.
○ The digitalization of the agricultural sector is rapidly progressing, mainly in major developed countries. South Korea is also actively promoting smart agriculture with the goal of securing a growth engine through the digitalization of agriculture. The digitalization of agriculture is expected to increase the use of digital technology in agricultural food exports and expand digital trade. Therefore, it is necessary to set an effective response direction for the expansion of agri-food exports in the digital trade era.
○ This study analyzes trade rules and issues related to the digital trade of agri-food in the digital trade era. It presents the current status and prospects of domestic and foreign digital trade. It also aims to suggest directions for promoting agri-food exports by preemptively investigating and analyzing the current situation and difficulties in using digital technology by businesses related to agri-food exports.
○ We analyzed previous literature and related data to establish the background and purpose of this study, and reviewed the treaties and associated data shown in the WTO, the FTA, and negotiations between countries in order to identify trade rules related to digital trade, and consignment studies were used. In order to understand the current status and prospects of digital trade, data from the Korea Customs Service, Statistics Korea, and domestic and foreign reports were reviewed. In addition, data from domestic and foreign government ministries and related reports also were analyzed to understand the agri-food digital trade support policy. In order to analyze the potential and actual use of digital technology in agri-food trade, we reviewed domestic and foreign technology data. And we interviewed and surveyed agri-food exporters, commissioned manuscripts, composed an expert council, and conducted quantitative analysis. Finally, response directions and tasks were derived through expert advisory meetings and research team meetings based on the analysis results.
○ Collaborative researches were conducted to reflect the opinions of related experts on digital trade rules and the actual conditions of companies using digital technology. In chapter 2, the manuscripts commissioned by Dr. Lee Jukwan and Researcher Kang Min Ji of the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy were used in the discussion of digital trade and trade rules. And in chapter 4, analysis of the possibility of using digital technology in agricultural food trade and analysis of its use, we entrusted the case analysis of digital technology use by agri-food exporters to Lee Kwangheon, CEO of K-CREW.
(For more information, please refer to the report.)
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