축산업 발전과 함께 성장하던 국내 배합사료 산업은 1990년대 중반 이후 축산물의 수입개방, 축산물 소비 증가율 감소 등으로 축산업 성장률이 정체되면서 기존의 성장세가 크게 둔화되었다. 또한 2000년대 중반에 발생한 애그플레이션으로 사료원료의 대부분을 구성하는 국제곡물가격이 급등하면서 사료업체의 어려움이 가중되었을 뿐만 아니라 축산물 생산비의 가장 큰 부분을 차지하는 사료비 지출의 안정화를 위한 축산농가의 사료가격 인하요구가 지속되어왔다. 이러한 상황하에서 경쟁력 있는 사료산업을 육성하여 국내 축산업의 경쟁력을 제고할 뿐만 아니라 축산농가의 경영안정, 축산물 물가안정 도모를 위해 본 연구가 기획되었다.
본 연구는 1차년도의 수입곡물 가공 식품 소재산업(제분, 전분당, 착유) 분석에 이어 배합사료 산업에서의 효율적·안정적 원료곡물 도입과 시장 구조 및 성과 분석, 해외사례 분석 등을 통해 배합사료 산업 개선방안을 도출하고자 하였다.
Korea's assorted feed industry achieved a rapid quantitative growth until the early 1990s with the development of the domestic livestock industry. Since the late 1990s, however, the industrial structure has changed as the growth trend has slowed down due to the opening of the market for livestock products and a decrease in the increase rate of meat consumption. Also, since the mid-2000s, the prices of imported grain, major feed ingredients, have soared and price volatility has risen, which has led to the burden on assorted feed companies. In addition, as large-scale feed companies appeared with mergers and acquisitions among firms, the assorted feed market has been switched from the one centered on the feed purchased en bloc and sold to farmers by the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (NACF feed) to a system where private feed companies compete with NACF feed. With intensifying competition with imported livestock products, the competitiveness of assorted feed, which accounts for a high percentage of production costs, is directly related to the competitiveness of domestic livestock products. Accordingly, livestock farms' demand for the stable supply of high-quality assorted feed has increased. This study aims to analyze changes in the internal and external environments of the assorted feed industry, and the structure and performance of the assorted feed market, and seek ways to enhance the competitiveness of the industry.
According to the analysis result, the domestic assorted feed market shows relatively strong competition, but has room for improvement. As for the market structure, many companies have entered the market, and top companies' market share is much lower compared to other processing industries of imported grain. Also, NACF feed, whose purpose is not solely profit seeking, has a price control function. According to market performance analysis, assorted feed companies' business profit rate is lower compared to other industries, and feed prices are cheaper compared to Japan and Taiwan whose industrial structures are similar to Korea's. Price transmission analysis showed asymmetric price transmission in the assorted feed market for pigs and chickens, which implied the need to improve market efficiency.
To stably secure feed ingredients, Japan obtains them through the Japan Agricultural Cooperatives Group's overseas agricultural development and active participation in the international grain distribution market, or imports them through domestic grain distributors. On the other hand, Taiwan limits joint purchase to prevent a monopoly on grain by a small number of feed companies. According to a comparative analysis of prices of feed ingredients among Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, although the three countries have different systems for importing the ingredients, Korea has purchased them at cheaper prices compared to Japan and Taiwan.
Ways to improve the domestic assorted feed industry can be examined in terms of efficient and stable purchase of feed ingredients and in terms of the improvement of market performance of assorted feed. We compared and analyzed the methods in which Korea, Japan, and Taiwan purchase feed grains, and unit costs at which the three countries purchase feed ingredients. The result shows that purchase through joint ship chartering, which can promote purchasing competition among companies with the advantage of joint purchase, can be a way to purchase feed ingredients efficiently and stably. This can reduce the purchase cost per unit by pursuing economy of scale through joint purchase, and promote assorted feed price competition with individual companies purchasing grain under their responsibility. Also, to complement the limit of open competitive bidding and boost price competition among individual companies, there should be policies including providing opportunities for education related to the futures market and incentives to train experts in futures trading so that individual companies can enhance their adaptability in the futures market. To stably purchase feed ingredients, physical securing through post-harvest strategies or stockpiling as in Japan requires the establishment of systematic strategies from a long-term point of view. On the other hand, it can be a more realistic alternative to secure contracted quantities by forward contract. Through this method, purchasers can minimize the risk of an increase in production costs by extending a purchase period when prices skyrocket, and readjust the point of purchase when prices fall.
Because the analysis result shows that the domestic assorted feed market has the base for market competition, promoting the market function will be the most efficient way to improve the market performance of assorted feed. To enhance the market function, it is necessary to remove a barrier to market competition or supplement methods to cause competition. The barrier to market competition is the imperfection (asymmetry) of information on assorted feed prices, and to solve this problem, establishing a system for the disclosure of assorted feed prices can be considered. This system can provide practical price information to farmers, and lessen the financial burden compared to the existing price indication system as administrative costs due to the inspection of the implementation status are not entailed if inducements for assorted feed companies and their agencies to register price information are provided sufficiently. Also, it is needed to provide information on analysis of differences between ingredient prices and feed prices. It is required to estimate indicators that show companies' reasonable profit and to provide intuitive information related to it, including the warning stage. Due to the progress of the systematization of the livestock industry for the industry's efficiency, it is also necessary to monitor companies whose business range includes both assorted feed and the industry so that their market power in one market does not spread to the other market. The market performance of assorted feed for beef and dairy cattle, with a high market share of NACF feed, is better compared to other markets. Therefore, inducements are necessary for an effective function of price control through the expansion of NACF feed. Additionally, to increase farmers' options, it is needed to consider providing an institutional strategy to promote making assorted feed themselves.
Researchers: Kim Jongjin, Yoon Jongyeol, Kim Jiyeon and Park Jiwon
Research period: 2017. 1. ~ 2017. 10.
E-mail address: email@example.com
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