2001년 우리나라에 「여성농어업인 육성법」이 도입된 이래, 농림축산식품부는 5년마다 여성농업인 실태조사와 여성농업인 5개년 기본계획을 수립해 왔다. 여성농업인 정책은 현재 4차 기본계획(2016~20년)을 시행하고 있으나, 그동안 정책체감도와 인지도 측면에서 한계를 지적받아 왔다. 이 연구는 이와 같은 견지에서 여성농업인의 정책 수요실태를 파악하고, 여성농업인과 관련된 제도 및 정책을 검토하는 데 목적이 있다.
이 연구는 통계분석을 통하여 여성농업인이 농업에서 차지하는 위치를 확인하고, 기존 관련 연구와 제도 및 정책을 정리하였다. 그리고 여성농업인 실태에 대한 각종 통계자료를 분석하여 여성농업인들의 정책수요를 연령대별로 도출했으며, 연령에 따른 정책인지도와 영농활동 관련 정책수요를 정리하였다. 마지막으로 조사한 바를 바탕으로 여성농업인 정책의 실효성과 체감도를 높이기 위한 정책과제를 도출하였다.
Background & Purpose of Research
In the past, most farmers were men. Most women were considered male farmers' assistants or unpaid family workers in agricultural production activities. However, the decrease in rural population and the shortage of agriculturalmanpowerareincreasingwomen'sagriculturalproduction activities. As a simple example, the proportion of female farmers' labor input into agriculture production activity accounts for 30.0% as a family labor force, 72.7% as an employed labor force, and 60.4% as a way of helping. The role of female farmers in agricultural employment surpasses that of male farmers.
The role of women farmers is expected to increase. This is because the form of farming is shifting from the rice farming, which depends on male labor or machinery, to crops such as vegetables, fruit, and flowers that depend on the female labor force (Kang, 2008).
Based on the awareness of the role of women farmers, the government also established the Support of Female Farmers and Fishermen Act in 2001 and establishes a basic plan for fostering women farmers every 5 years. Although the Basic Plan for the Promotion of Women Farmers contains policies in the area of life that women farmers face, there are a number of opinions that women farmers do not feel high effectiveness of the policies, except for changes in welfare areas. In particular, the most urgent task for women farmers was to reduce the burden of labor (31.3%).
The countermeasures include the development of women-friendly farming equipment and the revitalization of the use of agricultural machinery rental business, but there are a number of evaluations that do not seem to have had any substantial effect. In order to analyze whether the development policy of women-friendly agricultural machinery and the promotion of rental business utilization policy substantially mitigate the burdens of labor of female farmers, an analysis of the actual situation of farming should be preceded, including agricultural labor forms provided by women farmers.
In addition, since the demand for policy changes according to the age group, a customized policy that reflects the characteristics of the policy target is needed. Studies that reflect the population and sociological characteristics of female farmers are needed.
Therefore, this study analyzes the actual conditions of farming activities and changes in the needs of women farmers from various perspectives. Based on the results of the analysis, we analyze the deficiencies of the current policies and systems.
It presents effective policy tasks considering the population, social and economic characteristics and needs of women farmers and presents policies necessary for women farmers to continue agriculture as major manpower in agriculture.
Research Scope and Method
The research methods used were domestic and overseas literature surveys, statistical data analysis, quantitative modeling and its analysis, and interview surveys. We reviewed the issues and proposals related to the farming activities of women farmers through domestic and foreign literature. The statistical data were analyzed using characteristics of farmers’ economic survey, agricultural census, economically active population survey, and female farmers survey.
The characteristics of the policy subjects analyzed by statistical data are tested whether it is statistically valid and the effect of socioeconomic factors on the farming activities of female farmers is analyzed. This analysis is important in that it can provide a basis for elaborating the female farmers’ labor burden reduction policy, which is highly needed by women farmers.
Based on the results of the analysis, we set up classification reference points for each generation of female farmers and analyzed the policy demand of female farmers for each generation based on the reference points, and then presented the policy tasks. In this study, in order to supplement the areas not included in the quantitative analysis, interviews were conducted with the concerned persons.
Research Content and Main Results
In Chapter 1, the background and purpose of the research and the literature related to the farming activities of women farmers were reviewed. After classifying the research of women farmers in the first place, we re-categorized the research related to the farming activities and mentioned limitations and issues of the previous research. Policies that respond to the farming activities of women farmers exist in the policy of women farmers, but it is difficult to find related basic research.
In this study, we analyze the farming activities of women farmers in detail and analyze the roles and positions of women farmers in farming activities. For the analysis, we used the statistics of Statistics Korea, the Crop Production Survey, the Economically Active Population Survey, the survey data on the actual condition of female farmers, and previous research results.
Although the agricultural production scale and the proportion of agricultural employment are steadily declining, the participation rate of female farmers in economic activity remains high and their share of farming significantly increased in 2013 compared to 2008. In addition, as the ages increase, the proportion of women farmers in charge of farming is increasing, and in the case of vegetables, fruits, and flowers the proportion of women farmers in charge of farming is larger than that of other crops. The role of these women farmers is expected to increase gradually as rices are converted into vegetables, fruits and flowers.
In Chapter 3, female farmers' policies were analyzed by using policy data. The basic plan for fostering female farmers and fishermen is established every five years and has been implemented since 2001. Currently the fourth basic plan is being implemented. The basic plan for fostering female farmers and fishermen is established at the central government unit, and based on the basic plan, local governments also implement and check the basic plan and the annual plan every five years depending on the local situation. In Chapter 3, basic plans for fostering female farmers and local governments and their implementation plans were analyzed through relevant data and interviews with related persons.
Chapter 4 analyzes the actual conditions and characteristics of farming activities of women farmers. The actual situation of farming activities of female farmers was analyzed through related statistical data and interviews with female farmers. The actual conditions of farming activities of female farmers were analyzed according to the characteristics of households with female farmers, the ages of female farmers and the characteristics of the items engaged. The items engaged in by women farmers vary according to the classification criteria. The lower the age, the higher the off-farm income than the agricultural income. The higher the age, the smaller the proportion of the off-farm income. When analyzed in more detail by labor input time, the absolute labor input time of female farmers is highest in the vegetable farm households, and the annual labor input time per household is longest for flowers, followed by fruit, vegetable, and livestock. In addition, the labor input time of female farmers varied according to their ages.
In Chapter 5, quantitative analysis using an econometrics model is used to examine whether the factors that can characterize the farming activities of female farmers analyzed by descriptive statistics in the previous chapter affect statistically effective levels of female farmers' farming activities. Particularly, not simply dividing age groups into 10-year or 5-year units, we categorized the age groups that can characterize the farming activities of women farmers through the analysis result. After analyzing the current policies and policy needs in Chapter 6, the policy task was presented in Chapter 7. Particularly, quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis results obtained from interviews of female farmers were supplemented by discussions.
Researchers: Eom Jinyoung, Choi Yongho, Park Jiyeon
Research period: 2018. 1. ~ 2018. 10.
E-mail address: email@example.com