유기농업은 토양, 생태계 및 사람의 건강을 지속시킬 수 있는 보다 넓은 의미의 농업시스템을 의미한다. 따라서 화학비료와 유기합성농약 등 고투입 집약농업을 통해 생산성을 최대로 높이고자 하는 일반적인 형태의 관행농업보다 환경보전적 가치와 같은 공익적 가치가 더욱 다양하게 존재하는 것으로 알려져 왔다.
정부의 적극적인 육성정책에 힘입어 유기농산물 인증면적은 꾸준히 증가해 왔으나 최근 들어 농자재 가격 상승, 노동력 부족 등으로 감소 내지는 정체 추세를 보이고 있다. 유기농업의 확산을 통해 제공되는 환경재는 공공재의 특징을 가지고 있기 때문에 시장을 통할 경우 적정 수준으로 공급되기 어렵고, 따라서 정부의 지원이 필요하다. 이 보고서는 유기농업이 지니는 비시장적 가치를 경제적으로 평가함으로써 정부의 유기농업 지원 근거를 얻고자 하였다. 우선 유기농산물 생산 및 소비 개황을 살펴보았다. 다음으로 유기농업의 비시장적 가치 항목을 설명하고, 대체비용법과 선택실험법을 통해 비시장적 가치를 경제적으로 평가하였다. 나아가 계층분석 의사결정과정을 적용하여 유기농업의 환경보전적 가치를 제고할 수 있는 정책으로 ‘농업환경보전프로그램 마련’, ‘유기농업의 종합적 가치에 관한 소비자 교육·홍보·행사 운영’, ‘판매채널 확대’, ‘지속직불제 도입’ 등을 제시하였다.
Background of Research
Organic agriculture in a broad sense is a farming system that can sustain soil, ecosystem and human health. Therefore the public services such as environment conservation provided by organic agriculture are known to be more various than conventional agriculture, which is oriented to increase the productivity using high input. The organic land has steadily increased with the government support, however, the recent socio-economic conditions hamper the growth of organic agriculture. Government support is necessary as environmental service provided by organic agriculture cannot be supplied at an optimum level due to the characteristic of public goods. The purpose of this report is to investigate the grounds for supporting organic agriculture by the economic analysis of the non-market value of organic agriculture.
First, literature review was conducted regarding the economic analysis of non-market value of organic agriculture and policies of selected countries. In order to assess the non-market value of organic agriculture, replacement cost method(RCM) and choice experiments(CE) are applied. In using RCM, literatures review on the assessment on the impact of organic agriculture for environment conservation were extensively carried out. A survey by questionnaire was conducted to apply CE, based on stated preference to evaluate the willingness to pay for the non-market value of organic agriculture. CE is widely used to estimate the non-market value, and useful methodology that considers multi attributes of the valuation objective comprehensively. RCM and CE are complementary as the former is based on the empirical study and the latter estimates by the questionnaire. Last, the AHP analysis is made on the basis of the survey by questionnaire with experts to determine priorities of policy instruments for vitalizing organic agriculture.
Research Results and Implications
RCM result shows that the value including both for market and non-market ones of organic agriculture is higher than conventional agriculture by 20~45% for paddy field rice, and by 2~4% for the orchard. The non-market value of organic agriculture outweighs the smaller market value of organic agriculture compared to conventional agriculture. Also, organic agriculture has higher potential to mitigate green house gas emission by 10.6~89.3% than conventional one. If 1% of the total agricultural area is cultivated organically, this is equivalent to 1.1 billion won.
According to the estimation of CE, the total sum of the economic value of willigness to pay for the value amounts to 700 to 1,100 billion won, which is 2.2 to 3.5 times market value. And three classes were derived from the analysis of the latent class model. It indicates that differentiated policy approach is necessary to increase the effectiveness of policy implementation.
For prioritizing the policy instruments for organic agriculture, the AHP analysis based on the survey by questionnaire for experts reveals that it is necessary to first promote ‘Establishing agri-environment conservation program (first place)’, ‘Consumer education and promotion for the value of organic agriculture (second place), and ’Expanding the sales channel (third place)’, ‘organic agriculture maintenance payment (forth place)’ as a policy instrument.
Considering the non-market contribution of organic agriculture to environment conservation and ecosystem restoration, it is important to support their income loss due to the organic practice through maintenance payment for the longer period. And, agri-environment conservation program should be introduced to induce the environmentally friendly agricultural practice. Last, Investment on technology development needs to be accompanied to further expand organic agriculture.
Researchers: Kim Chang-gil, Jeong Hak-kyun, Koo Ja-choon, Lee Hye-jin and Kim Yong-gyu
Research Period: 2015. 1. ∼ 2016. 12.
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