시장개방의 확대에 따라 식품가공산업의 수입원료 의존도가 심화되고 있는 상황에서 식품산업과 농업의 연계 강화를 위한 발전전략 제시가 필요하다. 식품산업과 농어업의 연계전략은 국내 농수산물의 안정적 공급 기반 구축, 품질향상 및 가격경쟁력 제고를 통해 국내 농산물 이용률을 향상시켜 국내 농어업의 부가가치를 높이는 방향으로 전개되어야 할 것이다.
이 연구는 5년간 수행되는 장기과제의 3년차 연구로서 식품가공산업이 분석대상이며, 육가공, 유가공, 채소가공(김치) 및 천일염가공 부문별 독립된 세부과제 형식으로 수행되었다. 각 세부과제별로 해당 가공산업의 전후방연계 분석을 통해서 당면문제를 도출하고, 발전전략을 제시하였다.
Production quantity of raw milk in our country has shown decreasing trend since 2008 due to continuous increase in farmers who closed livestock business and the decrease in the heads of milk cow based on stamping out for foot and mouth disease whereas raw milk import is increasing due to increase in domestic consumption and exports. 71% of domestic raw milk is processed as market milk while 22% is used for the processing fermented milk, 4% for cheese and 1% for powder milk.
The market for milk processing industry which entered the period of maturity shows stagnated phenomena due to the decrease in the consumption of market milk and powder milk based on the influence of low birth rate and increase in breast-feeding and the expansion of substitute beverage market. The size of market for milk processing industry is 6 trillion 628.8 billion won, consisting of 5 trillion 293 billion won for liquid market milk and other dairy products manufacturing business and 1 trillion 336 billion won for ice cream and other edible frozen desserts manufacturing business, which is estimated to takes up 10.9% of total food processing industry.
As to the proportion of business type in the business entity with less than 10 employees in milk processing industry, liquid market milk and other dairy product manufacturing business takes up 31.9% and ice cream and other edible frozen desserts manufacturing business takes up 24.5%. Market concentration ratio of top 4 corporations in milk processing industry which have the form of representative oligopoly market reached to 79.6%.
The results of analysis using raw materials consumption state survey data revealed that, as to the method of procuring and supplying milk, major raw material in milk processing companies, direct procurement at the production sites were highest as 40.5% and contract based production reached to 81% out of total direct procurement at the production sites, which explains well about the characteristics of milk processing industry which directly procures raw materials through contract based production with dairy farmers. Even though the method has stable raw material procurement structure, the method has the limit that there may be adverse effect of inefficiency and overall demand and supply adjustment is not easy because the subjects who collect raw milk are multiple. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to enhance nationwide adjustment function for demand and supply of raw milk.
The results of survey revealed that annual consumption of milk per capita was stagnated at 62 kg level but consumers still recognized milk processed products as health and nutrition food. Accordingly, it seems to be necessary to change the existing raw milk price system which is focused on milk fat and thus causes increase in production cost and the distortion of the prices of milk processed products to the method which considers the nutrients such as protein and calcium like advanced dairy countries. The results of consumer survey revealed that consumers were willing to pay higher prices as the contents of protein and calcium ingredients increase in addition to fat ingredient contents. Accordingly, it seems to be necessary to consider the method to link it with the expansion of consumption through the establishment of scientific research data and active publicity activities on the nutrients of raw milk.
Current issues which milk processing industry of our country is faced with can be summarized into as follows: It is difficult to secure production base on short-term basis in view of the nature of process industry of dairy industry and the physiological characteristics of milk cows; Overall adjustment of demand and supply of raw milk is not easy under the structure where the subjects who collect raw milk were scattered around as Dairy Farming Promotion Association, milk processing companies and milk processing unions; Excessive distribution margin is generated due to the existing raw milk price system focused on milk fat which increases production costs and multi-layer distribution structure for milk processed products; Consumption market has been stagnated for several years recently; Shortage of basic research data which can respond to nutrients and safety; Continuous increase in imports of milk processed products.
In order to accomplish the development of domestic dairy farming industry and milk processing industry together, the expansion of consumption for domestic raw milk and milk processed products is essential element, and the implementation strategies in this regard are as follows: Establishment of efficient raw milk collection system; Establishment of nationwide production plan system; Stable demand and supply of safe raw milk through the stabilization of sanitation grades for raw milk; Development of new products which responded to the changes in preference of consumer who put emphasis on health and nutrition; Scientific analysis of nutrients which supports the development of new products; Creation of new demand through fostering milk processing industry of Korean farm type; Review and arrangement of the existing raw milk price system which is confined to milk fat; Enhancement of domestic and overseas competitiveness through the expansion of exports to newly growing markets based on the establishment of tailored management system by the usage of raw milk.
Researchers: Chang, Jae Bong and Jeon, Hye Mi
E-mail address: email@example.com
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