이 보고서는 주요 해외 농업 통계를 총량지표, 농업생산지표, 생산요소지표, 수출입지표, 소비지표 등으로 구분하여 국가별, 품목별로 정리한 것이다. 이번 연구를 통해 나타난 한국농업이 세계농업에서 차지하는 위치는 다음과 같다.
주요 농업 거시지표 중 한국의 농림어업 GDP는 2009년 195억 달러로 최근 감소 추세를 보이고 있다. 총 GDP에서 농림어업이 차지하는 비중 또한 2010년 2.3%로 계속 감소하고 있다. 농업보조금의 경우 전체 농업생산액에서 차지하는 비중은 2010년 6.1%로 2009년(5.5%)보다 증가하였으나, 미국(7.1%)과 일본(12.4%)보다는 낮은 수준이다.
The purpose of this study is to expand and systemize statistical indexes to find the status of Korean agriculture in the world stage. In order to systemize international agricultural statistics, we classified them into 5 categories, which are aggregate index, production factor index, production index, trade index, and consumption index. According to this study, Korea's position in world agriculture is as follows.
The agricultural GDP of Korea in 2009 was 19.5 billion U.S. dollars. However, the share of agriculture in total GDP declined by 2.3% in 2010. In the case of agricultural subsidies, the share decreased to 6.1% in 2010 from 5.5% in 2009, which is lower than those of the United States(7.1%) and Japan(12.4%).
The world's farm population was 26.2 hundred million in 2009, and Korea's farm population was 2.34 million. In the meantime, the world's cultivated area in 2009 was 1,533 million ha, and Korea's cultivated land dropped by 1.7 million ha, or 17.4% of total land. The cultivated land per farmer is 0.8 ha, which is slightly higher than the world average of 0.6 ha. The total cultivated land for organic farming was 13,343 ha in 2009, or 0.74% of total cultivated land.
In terms of supply by product, world rice production in 2009 was 690 million tons, and 57.6% of the total supply amount was produced in China and Indonesia. In Korea, 6.5 million tons of rice were produced in 2009. In the case of pepper, the supply amount in 2009 fell to 350,000 tons(1.2% of world production, 10th rank), a 9.3% decrease from the previous year. Garlic, however, saw an increase of 4.8% to 357,000 tons(1.6% of world production, 3rd rank), which is the third largest after China and India. As for apples, production increased by 4.9% to 490,000 tons, and the supply has been increasing since 2004. As for pears, 490,000 tons were produced, which is 11.3% smaller than previous year(1.9% of world production, 5th rank). In the case of livestock products, beef production stood at 290,000 tons in 2009 and it is on an increasing trend. There was no big change in the production of pork, which amounted to 850,000 tons(0.8% of world production, 18th rank).
The world export amount of agricultural and livestock products in 2009 was 946.8 billion dollars. It decreased by 10.6% from the previous year. The United States(10.7%) was the largest exporter of agricultural and livestock products, followed by the Netherlands(7.8%), France(6.7%) and Germany(6.1%). Korea's agricultural exports increased 4.9% to 3.1 billion dollars. The world's agricultural and livestock imports posted 981.2 billion dollars, an decrease of 11.6% from the previous year. The U.S.' share of world agricultural imports is 8.0%, which is larger than Germany(7.5%), China(5.9%) and U.K.(5.2%). Meanwhile, Korea's agricultural imports decreased to 14.2 billion dollars, a 17.5% increase from the previous year.
In terms of quantity of food supply among consumer-related indexes, the two largest suppliers of rice in 2007 were China(29.4%) and India(23.7%). Their supply amount of 522.6 million tons of rice accounted for more than a half of world production. Meanwhile, Korea supplied 5.46 million tons(1.0%) of rice, and Japan accounted for 2.1% of world supply. The world supplied 60.09 million tons of apples. China, the largest supplier of apples, supplied 18.38 million tons(30.6%) and Korea supplied 446,000 tons, or 0.7% of world supply. As for grapes, the world supplied 25.54 million tons. China and the U.S. were the largest suppliers with 4.7 million tons(18.4%) and 2.62 million tons(10.3%), respectively. Korea supplied 360,000 tons(1.4%). In the case of beef, the world supplied 63.11 million tons of beef. Of this, the U.S. accounted for 12.73 million tons(20.2%), whereas Korea accounted for 540,000 tons(0.9%). As for pork, 99.08 million tons were supplied globally,
and China took up the largest share(44.02 million tons, 44.4%). Pork production in Korea has steadily increased to 1.49 million tons, or 1.5% of world supply.
In country section we cover agricultural and primary macroeconomic indexes of 14 countries including Korea, United States, Canada, and Brazil. Agricultural budget of Korea has increased by 13.0% compared with the previous year. The budget also had been increased in United States and China. Products section shows production, planted areas, import and export conditions of 10 products which have chosen by main trade products in Korea. Soybean production of Korea in 2009 was 139 thousand tons and it has steadily decreased. World soybean production in 2009 was 223 million tons, down 3.5% from last year. Major soybean producers are United States(91 million tons), Brazil(57 million tons), and Argentina(31 million
tons), which account for 81% of the world's production.
Researchers: Jae Hwan Han, Do Hwan Jang, Urim Cho, Yun Sun Park
Research period: 2011. 6. - 2011. 12.
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