My name is Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen, I am from National Agriculture Extension Centerbelong to Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Viet Nam. It is very good chance for me to attend the training course on 2021 KAPEX Online Academy. Through the training course, I have learned 18 policy lectures and four field lectures. I enjoyed and leant a lot from the training course. It was an excellence course and I was very satisfied. The contents of the course are extremely informative and incredibly useful, which has provided me with a lot of useful knowledge, especially information about smart agriculture, cooperatives, and experience of Korea in agricultural technology development and extension which are useful for my work.
In the context of the complicated situation of the Covid-19 pandemic, organizing an online course is considered an effective solution. More specifically, KAPEX has compiled online lectures through video clips to help trainees take the initiative in time. In addition, the lectures had supportive slides and English subtitles to help trainees understand the lessons better. All of the lecturers have deep knowledge and experience in the teaching topics. Through the training course, the trainees not only gain knowledge but also have the opportunity to improve their English skill. I believe that all of the trainees who have attended the training course that organized by KAPEX will well apply the knowledge and experience from the course to their work as well as organize online courses. On behalf of Vietnamese group, I would like to express my appreciation thanks to you for delivering a fantastic course. I will surely share information of this training to all my colleagues and farmers. I, myself, would love to attend future training organized by you.
As Imentioned above, one of the lectures I like the most was the policy lecture 6, namely Agricultural technology development and extension in Korea. In this paper, I would like to share with you about agricultural extension systemin Vietnam and the lessons can be learned from agricultural extension from Korea to that of Vietnam.
Agricultural extension system in Vietnam
The agricultural extension system is officially established in 1993. At the beginning of its establishment, the nationwide system of agricultural extension organizations had only a few hundred people. Up to now, there are about 30,000 people including extension officers and extension staffs at central and local levels (provincial,district, commune) and volunteers.
The organization chart ofagricultural extension in Vietnam
As a bridge between the State, scientific research agencies, farmers and the market, AgriculturalExtension is a system of consulting, disseminating knowledge, undertakings and policies of the Party and State, providing information, transfer scientific and technological advances, production and business experience to farmers.
The contents of Agricultural extension through stages:
- At the cultivationfield: From 1993, in the early years ofagricultural extension activities, individual technical equipment was transferred. The objective is to eliminate hunger and reduce poverty, ensurenational food security, focus on agricultural extension, transfer technicalequipment, apply new production techniques, and new dominant plant and animalvarieties in production, increase crop, increase productivity and output. Agricultural extension activities focuson:
+ Develop production of rice, hybridrice and hybrid maize;
+ Develop production of vegetables, flowers, fruit trees; perennial industrial crops (tea, coffee, pepper, rubber,cashew).
+ Transform crop structure, developing winter crop production in the northern provinces; converting inefficient riceland to developing short-term cash crops and industrial plants.
Limitations: have not yet established a large production area, have not applied mechanization, preservation and processing, and have not paid attention to improving quality according to the market.
- From the years 2000 to 2010: agricultural extension activities with the goal of applying highly intensive farming techniques, increasing the value per unit area of land.
+ Build a model of "Large modelfield", build an income field of 50-100 million VND/ha/year.
+ Encourage the development of commodity production, concentrated production of rice, vegetables, flowers, fruit trees and industrial plants.
+ Apply mechanization, especially in the stages of soil preparation, planting and harvesting;
+ Transfer of production techniques to ensure food quality and safety (vegetables, fruits, tea, pepper, coffee,...).Transfer of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) techniques; applying rice farming techniques according to "3 decrease 3 increase", "1 must 5decrease", apply high-tech agriculture (film house, net house, watersaving)
Limitations: production has not paid attention to the significant of consumption. There has not been the participation of businesses to consume products. There is often a situation of devaluation. Product quality has not met domestic and international standards.
- From 2011 to now, agricultural extension activities have focused on implementing key projects, developing rawmaterial areas for export, applying production to reduce input costs, and producing according to quality standards. VietGAP and GlobalGAP reduce greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment, proceed to link production in the chain, control quality and improve production value.
Limitations: the first stage has not focused on organizing production, closely linking the chain, and controlling quality and trace ability; There has not yet been a clear formation of concentrated production and raw material areas. Not paying attention to digital transformation in agricultural production.
Applying mechanization in harvesting rice in the MekongDelt
- The livestock programs inculuding: Vietnamese golden cow herd, Lean hybrid pig development program(lean pig herd): The program of biosafety farming (HS) associated with the chain of product consumption: in the context of complicated developments in livestock diseases (especially avian influenza, African swine fever), Technicalsolutions for biosafety farming have contributed to limiting the spread ofdiseases, protecting livestock and improving the value of livestock products.In the current livestock production, biosafety is considered an indispensable measure to ensure the health of livestock herds, contributing to ensuring the sustainable development of the Livestock industry to serve domestic consumption needs and towards the future. export of meat products, eggs, milk,….
Biosafety pig farming model
Before 2000, Vietnam's aquatic products still bore the imprint of a type of natural economic activity, self-sufficient, production level was still backward and handmade. Fishing isonly considered as a side occupation in agricultural production. The farming model applied mainly is VAC (garden-pond-pigstry or pountry shed) to create local food sources to contribute to poverty alleviation and natural and near-shore fishing, using destructive fishing methods such as dynamite, electricity, etc.
Fishery extension focused on transferring new technical equipment into production, initially changing themindset of fishermen from agricultural production to agricultural economy.
Applying advanced technical technology and biotechnology to develop aquaculture in all freshwater, brackish water and salt water bodies in a sustainable way, protecting the environment, increasing productivity andquality.
Rice, fish model
- Fostry extension sector: Build forestry models towards improving productivity, storage and quality (especially large timber plantation models and projects), raise the value of natural forests and planted forests, increase the value of forestry products and goods; encouraging cooperatives and households to participate in afforestation FSC has really played an importantrole in the strategy of rebuilding forest capital, developing people's forestry profession, improving the environment and increasing annual income for farmers. Forest extension models have really transformed people's perception from only exploiting and taking advantage of forests to doing general business, generating income from forest land, and at the same time regenerating foreststo ensure benefits for the community.
The lessons can be learned from agricultural extension from Korea
From 2015 up to now, Vietnam began transforming its agriculture extension and advisory services to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of its agricultural sector and thus improve the livelihoods of farmers. Despite these recent efforts, however, agricultural system continue to face many challenges and constraints such as lack of human resources (These are the lacking in both quality and quantity of human resources are working in extension system), the role of link between research, policy, markets, environment and production inextension is weak and no strong connection, lack of huge financial investment,...
Vietnam government is encouraging the active participation of stakeholders in agricultural extension activities and have more solutions to improve the coordination among scientific research, policy and agricultural development. Considering that the farmers as a centralactor in order to promote their capacity in the agricultural cooperatives and farmer groups. The government had a decentralized agricultural extension, bringing it from the central to the local level, in order to promote demand-driven extension services. Thus, the components were essential for Vietnam agriculture extension such as transferring technology for farmers, training professional skills for farmers; and supplying information on technology, management, and the market for farmers.
Name: Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen
Organization: National Agriculture Extension Center
belong to Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Viet Nam